m.r.Life ι**=7/3ψ

Integrating diverse evolutionary concepts

A diverse set of evolutionary concepts are included as sub-components of Malthusian relativity. These include:

  • Metabolism is a proxy for the rate at which organisms assimilate, transform and expend energy (e.g. Calder, 1984; Brown et al., 2004; Humphries and McCann, 2014).
  • Each species has a biological timescale of its own that is given by the inverse of mass specific metabolism (e.g. Pearl, 1928; Brody, 1945).
  • An advanced metabolism is dependent upon a cell where the molecules of the metabolic pathways concentrate (e.g. Oparin, 1957; Miller and Orgel, 1974; Maynard Smith and Szathmary, 1995).
  • Natural selection is driven by the biochemical energetics of self-replication (e.g. Lotka, 1922; Van Valen, 1976; Brown et al., 1993).
  • Natural selection is constrained by trade-offs and constraints (e.g. Charlesworth, 1980; Roff, 1992; Stearns, 1992), including the quality-quantity trade-off (e.g., Smith and Fretwell, 1974), and a mass specific metabolism that depends on mass in self-replicators with almost no mass (DeLong et al., 2010).
  • Natural selection is dependent upon the feed-back ecology of density dependence (e.g. Anderson, 1971; Heino et al., 1998; Rankin, 2007), including the density dependence of interactive competition (e.g. Abrams and Matsuda, 1994; Witting, 1997) that makes the frequency-dependent arms race models (e.g. Dawkins and Krebs, 1979; Parker, 1979; Maynard Smith and Brown, 1986) realistic.
  • Natural selection proceeds towards attractors like Continuously Stable Strategies (e.g. Maynard Smith and Price, 1973; Eshel and Motro, 1981; Taylor, 1989; Christiansen, 1991).
  • Short-term evolution is contingent upon the current state of biology and the available mutations.
  • Long-term evolution is more like a deterministic path (Witting, 1997, 2008) that is laid down by the selection attractors that unfold from the origin of the zero-energy replicator.
  • The phenotype can be described as an allometric function of mass (e.g. Rubner, 1883; Kleiber, 1932; Fenchel, 1974; Peters, 1983; Calder, 1984).
  • It is the optimisation of density regulation that selects the exponents of the body mass allometries (Witting, 1995).
  • The two-fold cost of the male (Maynard Smith, 1968) and the two-fold cost of meiosis (Williams, 1975) are essential for the selection of sexual and asexual reproduction.
  • The selection of sex ratios, ploidy levels and mating patterns are interrelated (Fisher, 1930; Hamilton, 1967).
  • The selection of senescence is related to the selection of a soma (e.g. Weismann, 1889; Medawar, 1952; Williams, 1957; Hamilton, 1966).
  • Population dynamics is influenced by natural selection (e.g. Voipio, 1950; Chitty, 1960).
  • Fisher's (1930) fundamental theorem of natural selection is essential as a limit theorem of hyper-exponential population growth (Witting, 1997).
  • It is the acceleration of the population dynamic growth rate, and not the growth rate itself, that is a function of the density dependent environment (Ginzburg, 1972).
  • References

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